Case Study 1
Freedom of speech in the media is one of the most important institutions of democracy. Guided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the World Press Freedom Committee, the IFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists, Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics defines the ethical guidelines, all of which should be followed while performing professional duties. In other words, the Code of Ethics is universal for all journalists in the world. Nevertheless, each state has certain peculiarities regarding its performance. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the UAE Journalism Code of Ethics and the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics (Society of Professional Journalists, 2014).
To start with, both Codes of Ethics have certain similarities, five of which are the most significant. They include avoiding discrimination and plagiarism, accuracy in reporting, confidentiality, and minimization of harm. Firstly, journalists should avoid any stereotypes against people based on their race, gender, age, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, disability and social status. It is important to remember that all people are equal and have equal rights. Therefore, being professionals, journalists must have respect for everyone (Geoff, 2007).
Secondly, plagiarism should be avoided at all costs. True experts should confirm their rank daily by telling the truth seen with their own eyes and not someone else’s. Next to the facts, checking the authenticity of the information is necessary to avoid any inadvertent error, as distorted facts and gossips are equally bad. Moreover, it is necessary to be careful about revealing the names of juveniles as the people may be suspected of committing sexual crimes or being victims. The last but not the least, every journalist should attend to those who may be harmed by a result of reporting. The manifestation of the sensitivity to children and other unprotected sources of information is the task of the professional.
Case Study 2
- There is no arguing with the fact that Stone had to reveal the truth to an editor regarding the problems with getting the proper photographs before processing the images. Focusing on the code, it is worth noting that no journalist should engage in activities that could compromise the professional integrity and damage the trust. In this case, such rule was disobeyed and it was worth informing about.
- Every self-respecting journalist must abide by the rules and follow the Code, as the main statute of their vocation. Therefore, he had to admit mistakes and be ready to correct them by telling the truth. It is necessary to act in the framework of the high standards. It means that Stone should have told the editor how he obtained the photographs.
- It is not appropriate to create own images as an act of desperation with the aim to capture the right emotions and pain. The journalists should draw a clear distinction between the protection of the interests of and the news reporting. Furthermore, analysis and commentary should be clearly identified and must not distort the facts or context.
- It is of no importance whether the photos closely depicted the reality or not. Ensuring the reliability of any information used is one of the most important aspects in journalists’ work. They should not lead to a simplified perception of the material or the coverage out of context.
- The above information facts reflect the four ethical code that have been violated. However, every journalist should strive for the opposite, namely the appropriate acknowledgement of sources, avoiding the fanning of public feeling, rightful acquisition of information and accuracy in reporting.
Case Study 3
- The Sakshi Advertising is a holder of neighboring rights (performers, producers of public organizations). Its work is associated with the event management, corporate gifts, printing, and fabrication, all of which is connected with the publicity and public relations.
- The company was to prepare a campaign to launch Sony 3D Television. In a profound sense, such a case that appeared between the Sakshi Advertising and the Jumbo Company should be defined as the publication or public performance. The purpose of such a kind of case lies in direct communication with the public, either live or recorded, for example, in the form of presentation (Federal Law No. 7 of the Year 2002, 2002).
- Having analyzed UAE Copyright Law, certain rights should be singled out as far as they were violated during the process of the case. First of all, the right of the author or his successor to determine the first date of publication of the project. Second, the right of an author to claim authorship of the project. Thirdly, the author’s right to deny any amendments to work, if it leads to distortion or can damage their reputation. The Jumbo Company’s actions violated all the above laws.
- Obviously, the two companies should have clearly allocated responsibilities to avoid any cases of infringement of Copyrights and Intellectual Property Rights. Firstly, the Jumbo Electronics and Sony ME could use that information only with the consent of the author’s ideas. Using ideas without certification of its creator is a major offense of Copyright Law. Secondly, they could use the campaign in case of death of the author. In such a way, all rights on idea transfer to other joint-writers of the campaign (Federal Law No. 7 of the Year 2002, 2002).