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To begin with, rhetorical writing is a unique work, which is aimed at communication with the audience. Moreover, the main purpose of the rhetorical analysis is to decide on the major rhetorical strategies, which are used by a great number of professional writers in their works. Additionally, authors should resort to rhetorical writing in order to learn new methods of rhetorical strategies that can be applied in their further publications, to develop or even to improve these methods. Besides, rhetorical analysis is a good practice, which tends to increase the writing and critical analysis skills. The audience of this rhetorical analysis involves the professor and classmates of the chosen course, as well as all the people interested in the recent advancement of artificial intelligence.
The article “Chips off the old block: Computers are taking design cues from human brains” is one of the most recent articles of The New York Times published on September 16, 2017. The author of the article Cade Metz is a seasoned writer, reporter, and editor who is currently working as a reporter with The New York Times in San Francisco. The writer has already discussed the main issues of artificial intelligence in June 2017, where he investigated new projects of Google, Facebook, and Microsoft regarding artificial intelligence. Moreover, the intended audience of the article includes scientists and professionals of computer science, in particular of artificial intelligence branch, as well as amateurs, who are interested in computer science generally and the recent updates in technologies and innovations. The main purpose of the article is to demonstrate that modern computer chips are not able to satisfy high customer demands. As a result, the only thing that scientists are able to do is to create the universal chip, which will work as a human brain expand its range of abilities and require less energy consumption. The author wanted the reader to evaluate how important it is now to apply this new type of chip for the whole humanity progress, and simplification of the life of the worldwide population.
Furthermore, this analysis will research the rhetorical strategies, which Cade Metz used for describing the development, modern issues and future forecasts about the artificial intelligence. Logos, description, comparison and contrast are the major strategies, which were employed by the author to interact with the audience, and which will be outlined in the paper. The conclusion will define the key points of the article and of the research summarizing the significance of the new chips’ prototypes that will be soon manufactured and which will be a multitasking invention. The additional strategies that may be included to the article with the aim of achieving more efficient communication with the readers will also be discussed in the conclusion.
Logos is the logical reasons or evidence that support the stated ideas by providing facts, supporting analysis, experiments and their results. First of all, the author uses logos, when he claims that the modern world demands from artificial intelligence a great number of different functions varying from recognizing faces and flowers to driving cars. After that he states that these needs are not able to exist now because of the limits, which exist even in the latest computers. Consequently, to tackle this issue the scientists have to resort to the biology study. They will have to create machines, which will be similar to the brain, which distributes myriads of tasks between all the main systems of human organism.
Secondly, the author applies logos, when he tells about the recent researches connected with the invention of the neural networks. The writer asserts that Google investigators developed the project of neutral networks in 2011, which would help people to recognize human speech and face. Notwithstanding, they claimed that if more than 1 billion people used their telephones dealing with this software, the Google network would not be able to support it for more than 3 minutes. Thus, these facts highlight the importance of creating universal artificial intelligence, which will be able to fulfil the people’s needs.
Finally, the logos is employed, when the author explains why the artificial intelligence chips should be designed in the nearest future. Metz argues that the progressive improvements of modern computers were guaranteed by the gradual doubling of the number of the transistors inside these machines. Moreover, these chips consumed approximately the same quantities of energy compared with the previous ones. Nevertheless, since 2010 it has become harder to double the number of transistors for powerful computers, because of the limited physical material, which could be applied to execute this task. As a result, the author claims that if a company wants computer to perform more functions, it will need more machines, space and energy. However, there is another idea how to deal with the current problems: researches have to create a completely new type of specialized chips, which will be able to accelerate the process of evolution. In addition, these chips will send enormous amounts of information inside the machine’s network.
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Description is a powerful strategy used to communicate with the intended audience through the simple description of the events supporting the provided statements. First of all, the current processes in the artificial intelligence branch of study are outlined, which are aimed at the future changes caused by the new machines. Metz asserts that the computers have not been improved drastically since the last century, and that restrains most modern scientists. For example, he gives account of the projected machines, which will be able to perceive the environment by themselves, and will be created one day. Moreover, he contends that virtual reality headsets and flying drones will exist only with the help of chips based on human brains.
Secondly, the author highlights that the artificial intelligence chips are going to be built by the most prominent companies of the contemporary world. For instance, Google, Apple and Samsung have an idea to produce smartphones with artificial intelligence and to manufacture them within the next few years. Furthermore, the cars, which require no human driver, will also need the artificial intelligence chips.
Finally, Metz follows the description method determining different functions of the silicon chips that exist in the modern world. Therefore, he states that the modern chips are able to store information, execute simple tasks inside toys or TV sets. More by token, these chips are responsible for modeling of complicated processes running inside the latest supercomputers, and offering various Internet services to consumers.
Comparison and Contrast
Comparison and contrast is a unique strategy adopted in the rhetorical writing in order to develop and reinforce the main idea of the article providing the similarities and differences between certain phenomenon and thoughts. First of all, the author compares the machines that were used during the last century with the most recent computers. Furthermore, the writer argues that earlier, approximately 50 years ago, there was only one chip inside the powerful computer, which was responsible for performing all the functions. Nevertheless, lately scientists have constructed a new type of computers, which distribute the tasks among a lot of little chips with being accountable for one exact task. Besides, one of the most important claims is that such machines consume less energy than those of the last century’s.
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Secondly, the author compares central processing units (CPU) with the graphic processing units (GPY) in order to decide which type of them is better to use for the neutral networks. On the one hand, Metz states that the CPU’s chips are able to determine and execute only one particular task; as a result, it will be hard to reprogram and transform them into multifunctional chips. On the other hand, the writer asserts that GPU will reduce the consumption of electricity by contrast with the CPUs. More by token, these chips developed for performing images into the games and other software are more efficient at running the math processes, which are required to be applied into the neutral networks. Consequently, the author claims that the probability that new artificial intelligence machines will be based on the graphic processing unit rather than on central ones is higher.
In summary, rhetorical appeals and strategies have a great role in supporting and making the main idea of the writing more effective. Additionally, rhetorical strategies help the writer to prove the readers that his or her opinion is persuasive thus promoting better communication with the audience. Moreover, the latter becomes more interested and involved into the processes or ideas described by the author that contributes to determining which methods of the rhetoric are more efficient in this case. Cade Metz successfully applies the methods of logos, description as well as comparison and contrast in his article “Chips off the old block: Computers are taking design cues from human brains”. What is more, these strategies help the writer to achieve his main objective – to describe the inability of current computers to execute complicated tasks because of limited resources. Therefore, the author contends that the research should use the human brain as the best prototype of the universal chip, which will require less energy, will be smaller, but able to deal with different complex functions. The writer demonstrated the clear picture of the current situation of the development and projected ideas of applying the artificial intelligence by means of the description strategy. Additionally, by the logos the author provided and defended the scientists’ need of the new artificial intelligence chips, which should consider the human brain as their prototype. Furthermore, comparing central processing units with graphic ones Metz decided what type of chips should be designed in order to create a new chip through its reprogramming. Moreover, measuring the differences between the machines, which were used in the last decades and the most recent machines, the author supports the need of the new artificial intelligence chips. There are no doubts that Cade Metz could improve his article using a wider range of strategies, for example, the one of causes and effects. The latter would help the author to forecast the impacts of this unique chip on the IT branch of study in general. The current problems of artificial intelligence could also be considered by employing the causes and effects method as prospected events, which will influence the history of the whole humanity. It must be noted that providing causes and effects could also assist the author in defining, for example, the ethical issues which the scientists will face in case of introducing new chips to the contemporary society. Hence, by following the causes and effects strategy the writer is able to reinforce the overall influence of the article, to connect different events with their consequences, as well as to predict some problems and issues that the humanity may encounter. Finally, this approach will contribute to more efficient interaction and communication with the audience.